pygsti.extras.crosstalk
¶
LinearOperator Set Tomography Tools Python Package
Submodules¶
Package Contents¶
Classes¶
A quantum circuit. 

An association between Circuits and outcome counts, serving as the input data for many QCVV protocols. 
Functions¶



Loads a pygsti dataset from file. 

Flattens an irregualr list. 



Implements crosstalk detection on multiqubit data (finegrained data with entries for each experiment). 

 class pygsti.extras.crosstalk._Circuit(layer_labels=(), line_labels='auto', num_lines=None, editable=False, stringrep=None, name='', check=True, expand_subcircuits='default', occurrence=None, compilable_layer_indices=None)¶
Bases:
object
A quantum circuit.
A Circuit represents a quantum circuit, consisting of state preparation, gates, and measurement operations. It is composed of some number of “lines”, typically one per qubit, and stores the operations on these lines as a sequence of
Label
objects, one per circuit layer, whose .sslbls members indicate which line(s) the label belongs on. When a circuit is created with ‘editable=True’, a rich set of operations may be used to construct the circuit in place, after which done_editing() should be called so that the Circuit can be properly hashed as needed. Parameters
layer_labels (iterable of Labels or str) –
This argument provides a list of the layer labels specifying the state preparations, gates, and measurements for the circuit. This argument can also be a
Circuit
or a string, in which case it is parsed as a textformatted circuit. Internally this will eventually be converted to a list of Label objects, one per layer, but it may be specified using anything that can be readily converted to a Label objects. For example, any of the following are allowed:[‘Gx’,’Gx’] : X gate on each of 2 layers
`[Label(‘Gx’),Label(‘Gx’)] : same as above
[(‘Gx’,0),(‘Gy’,0)] : X then Y on qubit 0 (2 layers)
[[(‘Gx’,0),(‘Gx’,1)],[(‘Gy’,0),(‘Gy’,1)]] : parallel X then Y on qubits 0 & 1
line_labels (iterable, optional) – The (string valued) label for each circuit line. If ‘auto’, then line_labels is taken to be the list of all statespace labels present within layer_labels. If there are no such labels (e.g. if layer_labels contains just gate names like (‘Gx’,’Gy’)), then the special value ‘*’ is used as a single line label.
num_lines (int, optional) – Specify this instead of line_labels to set the latter to the integers between 0 and num_lines1.
editable (bool, optional) – Whether the created Circuit is created in able to be modified. If True, then you should call done_editing() once the circuit is completely assembled, as this makes the circuit readonly and allows it to be hashed.
stringrep (string, optional) – A string representation for the circuit. If None (the default), then this will be generated automatically when needed. One reason you’d want to specify this is if you know of a nice compact string representation that you’d rather use, e.g. “Gx^4” instead of the automatically generated “GxGxGxGx”. If you want to initialize a Circuit entirely from a string representation you can either specify the string in as layer_labels or set layer_labels to None and stringrep to any valid (oneline) circuit string.
name (str, optional) – A name for this circuit (useful if/when used as a block within larger circuits).
check (bool, optional) – Whether stringrep should be checked against layer_labels to ensure they are consistent, and whether the labels in layer_labels are a subset of line_labels. The only reason you’d want to set this to False is if you’re absolutely sure stringrep and line_labels are consistent and want to save computation time.
expand_subcircuits (bool or "default") – If “default”, then the value of Circuit.default_expand_subcircuits is used. If True, then any subcircuits (e.g. anything exponentiated like “(GxGy)^4”) will be expanded when it is stored within the created Circuit. If False, then such subcircuits will be left asis. It’s typically more robust to expand subcircuits as this facilitates comparison (e.g. so “GxGx” == “Gx^2”), but in cases when you have massive exponents (e.g. “Gx^8192”) it may improve performance to set expand_subcircuits=False.
occurrence (hashable, optional) – A value to set as the “occurrence id” for this circuit. This value doesn’t affect the circuit an any way except by affecting it’s hashing and equivalence testing. Circuits with different occurrence ids are not equivalent. Occurrence values effectively allow multiple copies of the same ciruit to be stored in a dictionary or
DataSet
.compilable_layer_indices (tuple, optional) – The circuitlayer indices that may be internally altered (but retaining the same target operation) and/or combined with the following circuit layer by a hardware compiler.when executing this circuit. Layers that are not “compilable” are effectively followed by a barrier which prevents the hardward compiler from restructuring the circuit across the layer boundary.
 default_expand_subcircuits¶
By default, expand subcircuit labels.
 Type
bool
 line_labels¶
The line labels (often qubit labels) of this circuit.
 Type
tuple
 layertup¶
This Circuit’s layers as a standard Python tuple of layer Labels.
 Type
tuple
 tup¶
This Circuit as a standard Python tuple of layer Labels and line labels.
 Type
tuple
 str¶
The Python string representation of this Circuit.
 Type
str
 default_expand_subcircuits = True¶
 classmethod cast(cls, obj)¶
Convert obj into a
Circuit
. Parameters
obj (object) – Object to convert
 Returns
Circuit
 classmethod from_tuple(cls, tup)¶
Creates a
Circuit
from a tuple Parameters
tup (tuple) – The tuple to convert.
 Returns
Circuit
 classmethod _fastinit(cls, labels, line_labels, editable, name='', stringrep=None, occurrence=None, compilable_layer_indices=None)¶
 _bare_init(self, labels, line_labels, editable, name='', stringrep=None, occurrence=None, compilable_layer_indices=None)¶
 to_label(self, nreps=1)¶
Construct and return this entire circuit as a
CircuitLabel
.Note: occurrenceid information is not stored in a circuit label, so circuits that differ only in their occurence_id will return circuit labels that are equal.
 Parameters
nreps (int, optional) – The number of times this circuit will be repeated (CircuitLabels support exponentiation and you can specify this here).
 Returns
CircuitLabel
 property line_labels(self)¶
The line labels (often qubit labels) of this circuit.
 property name(self)¶
The name of this circuit.
Note: the name is not a part of the hashed value. The name is used to name the
CircuitLabel
returned from :method:`to_label`.
 property occurrence(self)¶
The occurrence id of this circuit.
 property layertup(self)¶
This Circuit’s layers as a standard Python tuple of layer Labels.
 Returns
tuple
 property tup(self)¶
This Circuit as a standard Python tuple of layer Labels and line labels.
 Returns
tuple
 property compilable_layer_indices(self)¶
Tuple of the layer indices corresponding to “compilable” layers.
 property compilable_by_layer(self)¶
Boolean array indicating whether each layer is “compilable” or not.
 property str(self)¶
The Python string representation of this Circuit.
 Returns
str
 property layerstr(self)¶
Just the string representation of the circuit layers (no ‘@<line_labels>’ suffix)
 property linesstr(self)¶
Just the string representation of the circuit’s line labels (the ‘@<line_labels>’ suffix)
 _labels_lines_str(self)¶
Split the string representation up into layerlabels & linelabels parts
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 __len__(self)¶
 __iter__(self)¶
 __contains__(self, x)¶
Note: this is not covered by __iter__ for case of contained CircuitLabels
 __radd__(self, x)¶
 __add__(self, x)¶
 repeat(self, ntimes, expand='default')¶
Repeat this circuit ntimes times.
 Parameters
ntimes (int) – Number of repetitions.
expand (bool or "default", optional) – When False, the returned circuit will contain a
CircuitLabel
encapsulating the repetitions without explicitly storing them. When True, the returned circuit will be expanded into the ntimes repetitions. “default” means to use the value in the class variable Circuit.default_expand_subcircuits.
 __mul__(self, x)¶
 __pow__(self, x)¶
 __eq__(self, x)¶
Return self==value.
 __lt__(self, x)¶
Return self<value.
 __gt__(self, x)¶
Return self>value.
 property num_lines(self)¶
The number of lines in this circuit.
 Returns
int
 copy(self, editable='auto')¶
Returns a copy of the circuit.
 Parameters
editable ({True,False,"auto"}) – Whether returned copy is editable. If “auto” is given, then the copy is editable if and only if this Circuit is.
 Returns
Circuit
 clear(self)¶
Removes all the gates in a circuit (preserving the number of lines).
 Returns
None
 _proc_layers_arg(self, layers)¶
Preprocess the layers argument used by many methods
 _proc_lines_arg(self, lines)¶
Preprocess the lines argument used by many methods
 _proc_key_arg(self, key)¶
Preprocess the key argument used by many methods
 _layer_components(self, ilayer)¶
Get the components of the ilayerth layer as a list/tuple.
 _remove_layer_component(self, ilayer, indx)¶
Removes the indxth component from the ilayerth layer
 _append_layer_component(self, ilayer, val)¶
Add val to the ilayerth layer
 _replace_layer_component(self, ilayer, indx, val)¶
 extract_labels(self, layers=None, lines=None, strict=True)¶
Get a subregion  a “rectangle”  of this Circuit.
This can be used to select multiple layers and/or lines of this Circuit. The strict argument controls whether gates need to be entirely within the given rectangle or can be intersecting it. If layers is a single integer then a
Label
is returned (representing a layer or a part of a layer), otherwise aCircuit
is returned. Parameters
layers (int, slice, or list/tuple of ints) – Which layers to select (the horizontal dimension of the selection rectangle). Layers are always selected by index, and this argument can be a single (integer) index  in which case a Label is returned  or multiple indices as given by a slice or list  in which case a Circuit is returned. Note that, even though we speak of a “rectangle”, layer indices do not need to be contiguous. The special value None selects all layers.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints) – Which lines to select (the vertical dimension of the selection rectangle). Lines are selected by their linelabels (elements of the circuit’s .line_labels property), which can be strings and/or integers. A single or multiple linelabels can be specified. If the line labels are integers a slice can be used, otherwise a list or tuple of labels is the only way to select multiple of them. Note that linelabels do not need to be contiguous. The special value None selects all lines.
strict (bool, optional) – When True, only gates lying completely within the selected region are included in the return value. If a gate straddles the region boundary (e.g. if we select just line 1 and the circuit contains “Gcnot:1:2”) then it is silently notincluded in the returned label or circuit. If False, then gates which straddle the region boundary are included. Note that this may result in a Label or Circuit containing more line labels than where requested in the call to extract_labels(…)..
 Returns
Label or Circuit – The requested portion of this circuit, given as a Label if layers is a single integer and as a Circuit otherwise. Note: if you want a Circuit when only selecting one layer, set layers to a slice or tuple containing just a single index.
 set_labels(self, lbls, layers=None, lines=None)¶
Write lbls to the block defined by the layers and lines arguments.
Note that lbls can be anything interpretable as a
Label
or list of labels. Parameters
lbls (Label, list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – When layers is a single integer, lbls should be a single “layer label” of type Label. Otherwise, lbls should be a list or tuple of Label objects with length equal to the number of layers being set. A Circuit may also be used in this case.
layers (int, slice, or list/tuple of ints) – Which layers to set (the horizontal dimension of the destination rectangle). Layers are always selected by index, and this argument can be a single (integer) index or multiple indices as given by a slice or list. Note that these indices do not need to be contiguous. The special value None stands for all layers.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints) – Which lines to set (the vertical dimension of the destination rectangle). Lines are selected by their linelabels, which can be strings and/or integers. A single or multiple linelabels can be specified. If the line labels are integers a slice can be used, otherwise a list or tuple of labels is the only way to specify multiple of them. The linelabels do not need to be contiguous. The special value None stands for all lines, and in this case new lines will be created if there are new statespace labels in lbls (when lines is not None an error is raised instead).
 Returns
None
 insert_idling_layers(self, insert_before, num_to_insert, lines=None)¶
Inserts into this circuit one or more idling (blank) layers.
By default, complete layer(s) are inserted. The lines argument allows you to insert partial layers (on only a subset of the lines).
 Parameters
insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert the new layers before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The special value None inserts at the end.
num_to_insert (int) – The number of new layers to insert.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints, optional) – Which lines should have new layers (blank circuit space) inserted into them. A single or multiple linelabels can be specified, similarly as in :method:`extract_labels`. The default value None stands for all lines.
 Returns
Circuit
 insert_idling_layers_inplace(self, insert_before, num_to_insert, lines=None)¶
Inserts into this circuit one or more idling (blank) layers.
By default, complete layer(s) are inserted. The lines argument allows you to insert partial layers (on only a subset of the lines).
 Parameters
insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert the new layers before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The special value None inserts at the end.
num_to_insert (int) – The number of new layers to insert.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints, optional) – Which lines should have new layers (blank circuit space) inserted into them. A single or multiple linelabels can be specified, similarly as in :method:`extract_labels`. The default value None stands for all lines.
 Returns
None
 _append_idling_layers_inplace(self, num_to_insert, lines=None)¶
Adds one or more idling (blank) layers to the end of this circuit.
By default, complete layer(s) are appended. The lines argument allows you to add partial layers (on only a subset of the lines).
 Parameters
num_to_insert (int) – The number of new layers to append.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints, optional) – Which lines should have new layers (blank circuit space) inserted into them. A single or multiple linelabels can be specified, similarly as in :method:`extract_labels`. The default value None stands for all lines.
 Returns
None
 insert_labels_into_layers(self, lbls, layer_to_insert_before, lines=None)¶
Inserts into this circuit the contents of lbls into new full or partial layers.
By default, complete layer(s) are inserted. The lines argument allows you to insert partial layers (on only a subset of the lines).
 Parameters
lbls (list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – The full or partial layer labels to insert. The length of this list, tuple, or circuit determines the number of layers which are inserted.
layer_to_insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert lbls before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The special value None inserts at the end.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints, optional) – Which lines should have lbls inserted into them. Currently this can only be a larger set than the set of line labels present in lbls (in future versions this may allow filtering of lbls). value None stands for all lines.
 Returns
Circuit
 insert_labels_into_layers_inplace(self, lbls, layer_to_insert_before, lines=None)¶
Inserts into this circuit the contents of lbls into new full or partial layers.
By default, complete layer(s) are inserted. The lines argument allows you to insert partial layers (on only a subset of the lines).
 Parameters
lbls (list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – The full or partial layer labels to insert. The length of this list, tuple, or circuit determines the number of layers which are inserted.
layer_to_insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert lbls before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The special value None inserts at the end.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints, optional) – Which lines should have lbls inserted into them. Currently this can only be a larger set than the set of line labels present in lbls (in future versions this may allow filtering of lbls). value None stands for all lines.
 Returns
None
 insert_idling_lines(self, insert_before, line_labels)¶
Insert one or more idling (blank) lines into this circuit.
 Parameters
insert_before (str or int) – The line label to insert new lines before. The special value None inserts lines at the bottom of this circuit.
line_labels (list or tuple) – A list or tuple of the new line labels to insert (can be integers and/or strings).
 Returns
Circuit
 insert_idling_lines_inplace(self, insert_before, line_labels)¶
Insert one or more idling (blank) lines into this circuit.
 Parameters
insert_before (str or int) – The line label to insert new lines before. The special value None inserts lines at the bottom of this circuit.
line_labels (list or tuple) – A list or tuple of the new line labels to insert (can be integers and/or strings).
 Returns
None
 _append_idling_lines(self, line_labels)¶
Add one or more idling (blank) lines onto the bottom of this circuit.
 Parameters
line_labels (list or tuple) – A list or tuple of the new line labels to insert (can be integers and/or strings).
 Returns
None
 insert_labels_as_lines_inplace(self, lbls, layer_to_insert_before=None, line_to_insert_before=None, line_labels='auto')¶
Inserts into this circuit the contents of lbls into new lines.
By default, lbls is inserted at the beginning of the new lines(s). The layer_to_insert_before argument allows you to insert lbls beginning at a layer of your choice.
 Parameters
lbls (list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – A list of layer labels to insert as new lines. The statespace (line) labels within lbls must not overlap with that of this circuit or an error is raised. If lbls contains more layers than this circuit currently has, new layers are added automatically.
layer_to_insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert lbls before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The default value of None inserts at the beginning.
line_to_insert_before (str or int) – The line label to insert the new lines before. The default value of None inserts lines at the bottom of the circuit.
line_labels (list, tuple, or "auto") – The labels of the new lines being inserted. If “auto”, then these are inferred from lbls.
 Returns
None
 insert_labels_as_lines(self, lbls, layer_to_insert_before=None, line_to_insert_before=None, line_labels='auto')¶
Inserts into this circuit the contents of lbls into new lines.
By default, lbls is inserted at the beginning of the new lines(s). The layer_to_insert_before argument allows you to insert lbls beginning at a layer of your choice.
 Parameters
lbls (list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – A list of layer labels to insert as new lines. The statespace (line) labels within lbls must not overlap with that of this circuit or an error is raised. If lbls contains more layers than this circuit currently has, new layers are added automatically.
layer_to_insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert lbls before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The default value of None inserts at the beginning.
line_to_insert_before (str or int) – The line label to insert the new lines before. The default value of None inserts lines at the bottom of the circuit.
line_labels (list, tuple, or "auto") – The labels of the new lines being inserted. If “auto”, then these are inferred from lbls.
 Returns
None
 _append_labels_as_lines(self, lbls, layer_to_insert_before=None, line_labels='auto')¶
Adds the contents of lbls as new lines at the bottom of this circuit.
By default, lbls is inserted at the beginning of the new lines(s). The layer_to_insert_before argument allows you to insert lbls beginning at a layer of your choice.
 Parameters
lbls (list/tuple of Labels, or Circuit) – A list of layer labels to append as new lines. The statespace (line) labels within lbls must not overlap with that of this circuit or an error is raised. If lbls contains more layers than this circuit currently has, new layers are added automatically.
layer_to_insert_before (int) – The layer index to insert lbls before. Can be from 0 (insert at the beginning) to len(self)1 (insert at end), and negative indexing can be used to insert relative to the last layer. The default value of None inserts at the beginning.
line_labels (list, tuple, or "auto") – The labels of the new lines being added. If “auto”, then these are inferred from lbls.
 Returns
None
 _clear_labels(self, layers, lines, clear_straddlers=False)¶
remove all labels in a block given by layers and lines Note: layers & lines must be lists/tuples of values; they can’t be slices or single vals
 clear_labels(self, layers=None, lines=None, clear_straddlers=False)¶
Removes all the gates within the given circuit region. Does not reduce the number of layers or lines.
 Parameters
layers (int, slice, or list/tuple of ints) – Defines the horizontal dimension of the region to clear. See :method:`extract_labels` for details.
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints) – Defines the vertical dimension of the region to clear. See :method:`extract_labels` for details.
clear_straddlers (bool, optional) – Whether or not gates which straddle cleared and noncleared lines should be cleared. If False and straddling gates exist, an error will be raised.
 Returns
None
 delete_layers(self, layers=None)¶
Deletes one or more layers from the circuit.
 Parameters
layers (int, slice, or list/tuple of ints) – The layer index or indices to delete. See :method:`extract_labels` for details.
 Returns
None
 delete_lines(self, lines, delete_straddlers=False)¶
Deletes one or more lines from the circuit.
 Parameters
lines (str/int, slice, or list/tuple of strs/ints) – The line label(s) to delete. See :method:`extract_labels` for details.
delete_straddlers (bool, optional) – Whether or not gates which straddle deleted and nondeleted lines should be removed. If False and straddling gates exist, an error will be raised.
 Returns
None
 __getitem__(self, key)¶
 __setitem__(self, key, val)¶
 __delitem__(self, key)¶
 to_pythonstr(self, op_labels)¶
Convert this circuit to an “encoded” python string.
In the returned string each operation label is represented as a single character, starting with ‘A’ and continuing down the alphabet. This can be useful for processing operation sequences using python’s string tools (regex in particular).
 Parameters
op_labels (tuple) – An iterable containing at least all the layerLabels that appear in this Circuit, and which will be mapped to alphabet characters, beginning with ‘A’.
 Returns
string – The converted operation sequence.
Examples
(‘Gx’,’Gx’,’Gy’,’Gx’) => “AABA”
 classmethod from_pythonstr(cls, python_string, op_labels)¶
Decode an “encoded string” into a
Circuit
.Create a Circuit from a python string where each operation label is represented as a single character, starting with ‘A’ and continuing down the alphabet. This performs the inverse of :method:`to_pythonstr`.
 Parameters
python_string (string) – string whose individual characters correspond to the operation labels of a operation sequence.
op_labels (tuple) – tuple containing all the operation labels that will be mapped from alphabet characters, beginning with ‘A’.
 Returns
Circuit
Examples
“AABA” => (‘Gx’,’Gx’,’Gy’,’Gx’)
 serialize(self)¶
Serialize the parallel gate operations of this Circuit.
Construct a new Circuit whereby all layers containing multiple gates are converted to separate singlegate layers, effectively putting each elementary gate operation into its own layer. Ordering is dictated by the ordering of the compound layer labels.
 Returns
Circuit
 parallelize(self, can_break_labels=True, adjacent_only=False)¶
Compress a circuit’s gates by performing them in parallel.
Construct a circuit with the same underlying labels as this one, but with as many gates performed in parallel as possible (with some restrictions  see the Parameters section below). Generally, gates are moved as far left (toward the start) of the circuit as possible.
 Parameters
can_break_labels (bool, optional) – Whether compound (parallelgate) labels in this Circuit can be separated during the parallelization process. For example, if can_break_labels=True then “Gx:0[Gy:0Gy:1]” => “[Gx:0Gy:1]Gy:0” whereas if can_break_labels=False the result would remain “Gx:0[Gy:0Gy:1]” because [Gy:0Gy:1] cannot be separated.
adjacent_only (bool, optional) – It True, then operation labels are only allowed to move into an adjacent label, that is, they cannot move “through” other operation labels. For example, if adjacent_only=True then “Gx:0Gy:0Gy:1” => “Gx:0[Gy:0Gy:1]” whereas if adjacent_only=False the result would be “[Gx:0Gy:1]Gy:0. Setting this to True is sometimes useful if you want to parallelize a serial string in such a way that subsequently calling .serialize() will give you back the original string.
 Returns
Circuit
 expand_subcircuits_inplace(self)¶
Expands all
CircuitLabel
labels within this circuit.This operation is done in place and so can only be performed on an editable
Circuit
. Returns
None
 expand_subcircuits(self)¶
Returns a new circuit with
CircuitLabel
labels expanded. Returns
Circuit
 factorize_repetitions_inplace(self)¶
Attempt to replace repeated subcircuits with
CircuitLabel
objects.More or less the reverse of :method:`expand_subcircuits`, this method attempts to collapse repetitions of the same labels into single
CircuitLabel
labels within this circuit.This operation is done in place and so can only be performed on an editable
Circuit
. Returns
None
 insert_layer(self, circuit_layer, j)¶
Inserts a single layer into a circuit.
The input layer does not need to contain a gate that acts on every qubit, but it should not contain more than one gate on a qubit.
 Parameters
circuit_layer (Label) – The layer to insert. A (possibly compound) Label object or something that can be converted into one, e.g. ((‘Gx’,0),(‘Gcnot’,1,2)) or just ‘Gx’.
j (int) – The layer index (depth) at which to insert the circuit_layer.
 Returns
Circuit
 insert_layer_inplace(self, circuit_layer, j)¶
Inserts a single layer into a circuit.
The input layer does not need to contain a gate that acts on every qubit, but it should not contain more than one gate on a qubit.
 Parameters
circuit_layer (Label) – The layer to insert. A (possibly compound) Label object or something that can be converted into one, e.g. ((‘Gx’,0),(‘Gcnot’,1,2)) or just ‘Gx’.
j (int) – The layer index (depth) at which to insert the circuit_layer.
 Returns
None
 insert_circuit(self, circuit, j)¶
Inserts a circuit into this circuit.
The circuit to insert can be over more qubits than this circuit, as long as all qubits that are not part of this circuit are idling. In this case, the idling qubits are all discarded. The circuit to insert can also be on less qubits than this circuit: all other qubits are set to idling. So, the labels of the circuit to insert for all nonidling qubits must be a subset of the labels of this circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit) – The circuit to be inserted.
j (int) – The layer index (depth) at which to insert the circuit.
 Returns
Circuit
 insert_circuit_inplace(self, circuit, j)¶
Inserts a circuit into this circuit.
The circuit to insert can be over more qubits than this circuit, as long as all qubits that are not part of this circuit are idling. In this case, the idling qubits are all discarded. The circuit to insert can also be on less qubits than this circuit: all other qubits are set to idling. So, the labels of the circuit to insert for all nonidling qubits must be a subset of the labels of this circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit) – The circuit to be inserted.
j (int) – The layer index (depth) at which to insert the circuit.
 Returns
None
 append_circuit(self, circuit)¶
Append a circuit to the end of this circuit.
This circuit must satisfy the requirements of :method:`insert_circuit()`. See that method for more details.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be appended.
 Returns
Circuit
 append_circuit_inplace(self, circuit)¶
Append a circuit to the end of this circuit.
This circuit must satisfy the requirements of :method:`insert_circuit()`. See that method for more details.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be appended.
 Returns
None
 prefix_circuit(self, circuit)¶
Prefix a circuit to the beginning of this circuit.
This circuit must satisfy the requirements of the :method:`insert_circuit()`. See that method for more details.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be prefixed.
 Returns
Circuit
 prefix_circuit_inplace(self, circuit)¶
Prefix a circuit to the beginning of this circuit.
This circuit must satisfy the requirements of the :method:`insert_circuit()`. See that method for more details.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be prefixed.
 Returns
None
 tensor_circuit_inplace(self, circuit, line_order=None)¶
The tensor product of this circuit and circuit.
That is, it adds circuit to this circuit as new lines. The line labels of circuit must be disjoint from the line labels of this circuit, as otherwise applying the circuits in parallel does not make sense.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be tensored.
line_order (List, optional) – A list of all the line labels specifying the order of the circuit in the updated circuit. If None, the lines of circuit are added below the lines of this circuit. Note that, for many purposes, the ordering of lines of the circuit is irrelevant.
 Returns
None
 tensor_circuit(self, circuit, line_order=None)¶
The tensor product of this circuit and circuit.
That is, it adds circuit to this circuit as new lines. The line labels of circuit must be disjoint from the line labels of this circuit, as otherwise applying the circuits in parallel does not make sense.
 Parameters
circuit (A Circuit object) – The circuit to be tensored.
line_order (List, optional) – A list of all the line labels specifying the order of the circuit in the updated circuit. If None, the lines of circuit are added below the lines of this circuit. Note that, for many purposes, the ordering of lines of the circuit is irrelevant.
 Returns
Circuit
 replace_layer_with_circuit_inplace(self, circuit, j)¶
Replaces the jth layer of this circuit with circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit) – The circuit to insert
j (int) – The layer index to replace.
 Returns
None
 replace_layer_with_circuit(self, circuit, j)¶
Replaces the jth layer of this circuit with circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit) – The circuit to insert
j (int) – The layer index to replace.
 Returns
Circuit
 replace_gatename_inplace(self, old_gatename, new_gatename)¶
Changes the name of a gate throughout this Circuit.
Note that the name is only a part of the label identifying each gate, and doesn’t include the lines (qubits) a gate acts upon. For example, the “Gx:0” and “Gx:1” labels both have the same name but act on different qubits.
 Parameters
old_gatename (str) – The gate name to replace.
new_gatename (str) – The name to replace old_gatename with.
 Returns
None
 replace_gatename(self, old_gatename, new_gatename)¶
Returns a copy of this Circuit except that old_gatename is changed to new_gatename.
Note that the “name” is only a part of the “label” identifying each gate, and doesn’t include the lines (qubits) a gate acts upon. For example, the “Gx:0” and “Gx:1” labels both have the same name but act on different qubits.
 Parameters
old_gatename (str) – The gate name to replace.
new_gatename (str) – The name to replace old_gatename with.
 Returns
Circuit
 replace_gatename_with_idle_inplace(self, gatename)¶
Treats a given gatename as an idle gate throughout this Circuit.
This effectively removes this gate name from the circuit, and replaces a layer containing only this gate name with an idle layer.
 Parameters
gatename (str) – The gate name to replace.
 Returns
None
 replace_gatename_with_idle(self, gatename)¶
Returns a copy of this Circuit with a given gatename treated as an idle gate.
This effectively removes this gate name from the circuit, and replaces a layer containing only this gate name with an idle layer.
 Parameters
gatename (str) – The gate name to replace.
 Returns
Circuit
 replace_layer(self, old_layer, new_layer)¶
Returns a copy of this Circuit except that old_layer is changed to new_layer.
 replace_layers_with_aliases(self, alias_dict)¶
Performs a find and replace using layer aliases.
Returns a copy of this Circuit except that it’s layers that match keys of alias_dict are replaced with the corresponding values.
 Parameters
alias_dict (dict) – A dictionary whose keys are layer Labels (or equivalent tuples or strings), and whose values are Circuits.
 Returns
Circuit
 change_gate_library(self, compilation, allowed_filter=None, allow_unchanged_gates=False, depth_compression=True, one_q_gate_relations=None)¶
Reexpress a circuit over a different model.
 Parameters
compilation (dict or CompilationLibrary.) –
If a dictionary, the keys are some or all of the gates that appear in the circuit, and the values are replacement circuits that are normally compilations for each of these gates (if they are not, the action of the circuit will be changed). The circuits need not be on all of the qubits, and need only satisfy the requirements of the insert_circuit method. There must be a key for every gate except the self.identity gate, unless allow_unchanged_gates is False. In that case, gate that aren’t a key in this dictionary are left unchanged.
If a CompilationLibrary, this will be queried via the retrieve_compilation_of() method to find compilations for all of the gates in the circuit. So this CompilationLibrary must contain or be able to autogenerate compilations for the requested gates, except when allow_unchanged_gates is True. In that case, gates that a compilation is not returned for are left unchanged.
allowed_filter (dict or set, optional) – Specifies which gates are allowed to be used when generating compilations from compilation. Can only be not None if compilation is a CompilationLibrary. If a dict, keys must be gate names (like “Gcnot”) and values
QubitGraph
objects indicating where that gate (if it’s present in the library) may be used. If a set, then it specifies a set of qubits and any gate in the current library that is confined within that set is allowed. If None, then all gates within the library are allowed.allow_unchanged_gates (bool, optional) – Whether to allow some gates to remain unchanged, and therefore to be absent from compilation. When True such gates are left alone; when False an error is raised if any such gates are encountered.
depth_compression (bool, optional) – Whether to perform depth compression after changing the gate library. If one_q_gate_relations is None this will only remove idle layers and compress the circuit by moving everything as far forward as is possible without knowledge of the action of any gates other than self.identity. See the depth_compression method for more details. Under most circumstances this should be true; if it is False changing gate library will often result in a massive increase in circuit depth.
one_q_gate_relations (dict, optional) – Gate relations for the onequbit gates in the new gate library, that are used in the depth compression, to cancel / combine gates. E.g., one keyvalue pair might be (‘Gh’,’Gh’) : ‘I’, to signify that two Hadamards c ompose to the idle gate ‘Gi’. See the depth_compression() method for more details.
 Returns
None
 map_names_inplace(self, mapper)¶
The names of all of the simple labels are updated inplace according to the mapping function mapper.
 Parameters
mapper (dict or function) – A dictionary whose keys are the existing gate name values and whose values are the new names (strings) or a function which takes a single (existing name) argument and returns a new name.
 Returns
None
 map_state_space_labels_inplace(self, mapper)¶
The labels of all of the lines (wires/qubits) are updated according to the mapping function mapper.
 Parameters
mapper (dict or function) – A dictionary whose keys are the existing self.line_labels values and whose value are the new labels, or a function which takes a single (existing linelabel) argument and returns a new linelabel.
 Returns
None
 map_state_space_labels(self, mapper)¶
Creates a new Circuit whose line labels are updated according to the mapping function mapper.
 Parameters
mapper (dict or function) – A dictionary whose keys are the existing self.line_labels values and whose value are the new labels, or a function which takes a single (existing linelabel) argument and returns a new linelabel.
 Returns
Circuit
 reorder_lines_inplace(self, order)¶
Reorders the lines (wires/qubits) of the circuit.
Note that the ordering of the lines is unimportant for most purposes.
 Parameters
order (list) – A list containing all of the circuit line labels (self.line_labels) in the order that the should be converted to.
 Returns
None
 reorder_lines(self, order)¶
Reorders the lines (wires/qubits) of the circuit.
Note that the ordering of the lines is unimportant for most purposes.
 Parameters
order (list) – A list containing all of the circuit line labels (self.line_labels) in the order that the should be converted to.
 Returns
Circuit
 _is_line_idling(self, line_label, idle_layer_labels=None)¶
Whether the line in question is idling in every circuit layer.
 Parameters
line_label (str or int) – The label of the line (i.e., “wire” or qubit).
idle_layer_labels (iterable, optional) – A list or tuple of layerlabels that should be treated as idle operations, so their presence will not disqualify a line from being “idle”. E.g. [“Gi”] will cause “Gi” layers to be considered idle layers.
 Returns
bool – True if the line is idling. False otherwise.
 idling_lines(self, idle_layer_labels=None)¶
Returns the line labels corresponding to idling lines.
 Parameters
idle_layer_labels (iterable, optional) – A list or tuple of layerlabels that should be treated as idle operations, so their presence will not disqualify a line from being “idle”. E.g. [“Gi”] will cause “Gi” layers to be considered idle layers.
 Returns
tuple
 delete_idling_lines_inplace(self, idle_layer_labels=None)¶
Removes from this circuit all lines that are idling at every layer.
 Parameters
idle_layer_labels (iterable, optional) – A list or tuple of layerlabels that should be treated as idle operations, so their presence will not disqualify a line from being “idle”. E.g. [“Gi”] will cause “Gi” layers to be considered idle layers.
 Returns
None
 delete_idling_lines(self, idle_layer_labels=None)¶
Removes from this circuit all lines that are idling at every layer.
 Parameters
idle_layer_labels (iterable, optional) – A list or tuple of layerlabels that should be treated as idle operations, so their presence will not disqualify a line from being “idle”. E.g. [“Gi”] will cause “Gi” layers to be considered idle layers.
 Returns
Circuit
 replace_with_idling_line_inplace(self, line_label, clear_straddlers=True)¶
Converts the specified line to an idling line, by removing all its gates.
If there are any multiqubit gates acting on this line, this function will raise an error when clear_straddlers=False.
 Parameters
line_label (str or int) – The label of the line to convert to an idling line.
clear_straddlers (bool, optional) – Whether or not gates which straddle the line_label should also be cleared. If False and straddling gates exist, an error will be raised.
 Returns
None
 reverse_inplace(self)¶
Reverses the order of the circuit.
 Returns
None
 _combine_one_q_gates_inplace(self, one_q_gate_relations)¶
Compresses sequences of 1qubit gates in the circuit, using the provided gate relations.
One of the steps of the depth_compression() method, and in most cases that method will be more useful.
 Parameters
one_q_gate_relations (dict) –
Keys that are pairs of strings, corresponding to 1qubit gate names, with values that are a single string, also corresponding to a 1qubit gate name. Whenever a 1qubit gate with name name1 is followed in the circuit by a 1qubit gate with name2 then, if one_q_gate_relations[name1,name2] = name3, name1 > name3 and name2 > self.identity, the identity name in the circuit. Moreover, this is still implemented when there are self.identity gates between these 1qubit gates, and it is implemented iteratively in the sense that if there is a sequence of 1qubit gates with names name1, name2, name3, … and there are relations for all of (name1,name2) > name12, (name12,name3) > name123 etc then the entire sequence of 1qubit gates will be compressed into a single possibly nonidle 1qubit gate followed by idle gates in place of the previous 1qubit gates. Note that None can be used as name3 to signify that the result is the identity (no gate labels).
If a QubitProcessorSpec object has been created for the gates/device in question, the QubitProcessorSpec.oneQgate_relations is the appropriate (and autogenerated) one_q_gate_relations.
Note that this function will not compress sequences of 1qubit gates that cannot be compressed by independently inspecting sequential nonidle pairs (as would be the case with, for example, Gxpi Gzpi Gxpi Gzpi, if the relation did not know that (Gxpi,Gzpi) > Gypi, even though the sequence is the identity).
 Returns
bool – False if the circuit is unchanged, and True otherwise.
 _shift_gates_forward_inplace(self)¶
Shift all gates forward (left) as far as is possible.
This operation is performed without any knowledge of what any of the gates are. One of the steps of :method:`depth_compression()`.
 Returns
bool – False if the circuit is unchanged, and True otherwise.
 delete_idle_layers_inplace(self)¶
Deletes all layers in this circuit that contain no gate operations.
One of the steps of the depth_compression() method.
 Returns
bool – False if the circuit is unchanged, and True otherwise.
 compress_depth_inplace(self, one_q_gate_relations=None, verbosity=0)¶
Compresses the depth of this circuit using very simple rewrite rules.
If one_q_gate_relations is provided, all sequences of 1qubit gates in the circuit are compressed as far as is possible using only the pairwise combination rules provided by this dict (see below).
All gates are shifted forwarded as far as is possible without any knowledge of what any of the gates are.
All idleonly layers are deleted.
 Parameters
one_q_gate_relations (dict) –
Keys that are pairs of strings, corresponding to 1qubit gate names, with values that are a single string, also corresponding to a 1qubit gate name. Whenever a 1qubit gate with name name1 is followed in the circuit by a 1qubit gate with name2 then, if one_q_gate_relations[name1,name2] = name3, name1 > name3 and name2 > self.identity, the identity name in the circuit. Moreover, this is still implemented when there are self.identity gates between these 1qubit gates, and it is implemented iteratively in the sense that if there is a sequence of 1qubit gates with names name1, name2, name3, … and there are relations for all of (name1,name2) > name12, (name12,name3) > name123 etc then the entire sequence of 1qubit gates will be compressed into a single possibly nonidle 1qubit gate followed by idle gates in place of the previous 1qubit gates.
If a QubitProcessorSpec object has been created for the gates/device in question, the QubitProcessorSpec.oneQgate_relations is the appropriate (and autogenerated) one_q_gate_relations.
Note that this function will not compress sequences of 1qubit gates that cannot be compressed by independently inspecting sequential nonidle pairs (as would be the case with, for example, Gxpi Gzpi Gxpi Gzpi, if the relation did not know that (Gxpi,Gzpi) > Gypi, even though the sequence is the identity).
verbosity (int, optional) – If > 0, information about the depth compression is printed to screen.
 Returns
None
 layer(self, j)¶
Returns a tuple of the components, i.e. the (nonidentity) gates, in the layer at depth j.
These are the .components of the
Label
returned by indexing this Circuit (using square brackets) with j, i.e. this returns this_circuit[j].components. Parameters
j (int) – The index (depth) of the layer to be returned
 Returns
tuple
 layer_label(self, j)¶
Returns the layer, as a
Label
, at depth j.This label contains as components all the (nonidentity) gates in the layer..
 Parameters
j (int) – The index (depth) of the layer to be returned
 Returns
Label
 layer_with_idles(self, j, idle_gate_name='I')¶
Returns a tuple of the components of the layer at depth j, with idle_gate_name at empty circuit locations.
This effectively places an explicit idle_gate_name gates wherever there is an implied identity operation in the circuit.
 Parameters
j (int) – The index (depth) of the layer to be returned
idle_gate_name (str, optional) – The idle gate name to use. Note that state space (qubit) labels will be added to this name to form a
Label
.
 Returns
tuple
 layer_label_with_idles(self, j, idle_gate_name='I')¶
Returns the layer, as a
Label
, at depth j, with idle_gate_name at empty circuit locations.This effectively places an explicit idle_gate_name gates wherever there is an implied identity operation in the circuit.
 Parameters
j (int) – The index (depth) of the layer to be returned
idle_gate_name (str, optional) – The idle gate name to use. Note that state space (qubit) labels will be added to this name to form a
Label
.
 Returns
Label
 property num_layers(self)¶
The number of circuit layers.
In simple circuits, this is the same as the depth (given by :method:`depth`). For circuits containing subcircuit blocks, this gives the number of toplevel layers in this circuit.
 Returns
int
 property depth(self)¶
The circuit depth.
This is the number of layers in simple circuits. For circuits containing subcircuit blocks, this includes the full depth of these blocks. If you just want the number of toplevel layers, use :method:`num_layers`.
 Returns
int
 property width(self)¶
The circuit width.
This is the number of qubits on which the circuit acts. This includes qubits that only idle, but are included as part of the circuit according to self.line_labels.
 Returns
int
 property size(self)¶
Returns the circuit size.
This is the sum of the sizes of all the gates in the circuit. A gate that acts on nqubits has a size of n, with the exception of the idle which has a size of 0. Hence, the circuit is given by: size = depth * num_lines  num_1Q_idles.
 Returns
int
 property duration(self)¶
 two_q_gate_count(self)¶
The number of twoqubit gates in the circuit.
(Note that this cannot distinguish between “true” 2qubit gates and gate that have been defined to act on two qubits but that represent some tensorproduct gate.)
 Returns
int
 num_nq_gates(self, nq)¶
The number of nqqubit gates in the circuit.
(Note that this cannot distinguish between “true” nqqubit gates and gate that have been defined to act on nq qubits but that represent some tensorproduct gate.)
 Parameters
nq (int) – The qubitcount of the gates to count. For example, if nq == 3, this function returns the number of 3qubit gates.
 Returns
int
 property num_multiq_gates(self)¶
The number of multiqubit (2+ qubits) gates in the circuit.
(Note that this cannot distinguish between “true” multiqubit gates and gate that have been defined to act on more than one qubit but that represent some tensorproduct gate.)
 Returns
int
 _togrid(self, identity_name)¶
return a listoflists rep?
 __str__(self)¶
A text rendering of the circuit.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 format_display_str(self, width=80)¶
Formats a string for displaying this circuit suject to a maximum width.
 Parameters
width (int, optional) – The maximum width in characters. If the circuit is longer than this width it is wrapped using multiple lines (like a musical score).
 Returns
str
 _print_labelinfo(self)¶
A useful debug routine for printing the internal label structure of a circuit
 abstract _write_q_circuit_tex(self, filename)¶
Writes a LaTeX file for rendering this circuit nicely.
Creates a file containing LaTex that will display this circuit using the Qcircuit.tex LaTex import (compiling the LaTex requires that you have the Qcircuit.tex file).
 Parameters
filename (str) – The file to write the LaTex into. Should end with ‘.tex’
 Returns
None
 convert_to_cirq(self, qubit_conversion, wait_duration=None, gatename_conversion=None, idle_gate_name='Gi')¶
Converts this circuit to a Cirq circuit.
 Parameters
qubit_conversion (dict) – Mapping from qubit labels (e.g. integers) to Cirq qubit objects.
wait_duration (cirq.Duration, optional) – If no gatename_conversion dict is given, the idle operation is not converted to a gate. If wait_diration is specified and gatename_conversion is not specified, then the idle operation will be converted to a cirq.WaitGate with the specified duration.
gatename_conversion (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary that converts the gatenames in the circuit to the Cirq gates that will appear in the Cirq circuit. If only standard pyGSTi names are used (e.g., ‘Gh’, ‘Gp’, ‘Gcnot’, ‘Gcphase’, etc) this dictionary need not be specified, and an automatic conversion to the standard Cirq names will be implemented.
idle_gate_name (str, optional) – Name to use for idle gates. Defaults to ‘Gi’
 Returns
A Cirq Circuit object.
 convert_to_quil(self, num_qubits=None, gatename_conversion=None, qubit_conversion=None, readout_conversion=None, block_between_layers=True, block_idles=True, gate_declarations=None)¶
Converts this circuit to a quil string.
 Parameters
num_qubits (int, optional) – The number of qubits for the quil file. If None, then this is assumed to equal the number of line labels in this circuit.
gatename_conversion (dict, optional) – A dictionary mapping gate names contained in this circuit to the corresponding gate names used in the rendered quil. If None, a standard set of conversions is used (see :function:`standard_gatenames_quil_conversions`).
qubit_conversion (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary converting the qubit labels in the circuit to the desired qubit labels in the quil output. Can be left as None if the qubit labels are either (1) integers, or (2) of the form ‘Qi’ for integer i. In this case they are converted to integers (i.e., for (1) the mapping is trivial, for (2) the mapping strips the ‘Q’).
readout_conversion (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary converting the qubit labels mapped through qubit_conversion to the bit labels for readot. E.g. Suppose only qubit 2 (on Rigetti hardware) is in use. Then the pyGSTi string will have only one qubit (labeled 0); it will get remapped to 2 via qubit_conversion={0:2}. At the end of the quil circuit, readout should go recorded in bit 0, so readout_conversion = {0:0}. (That is, qubit with pyGSTi label 0 gets read to Rigetti bit 0, even though that qubit has Rigetti label 2.)
block_between_layers (bool, optional) – When True, add in a barrier after every circuit layer. Including such “pragma” blocks can be important for QCVV testing, as this can help reduce the “behindthescenes” compilation (beyond necessary conversion to native instructions) experience by the circuit.
block_idles (bool, optional) – In the special case of global idle gates, pragmablock barriers are inserted even when block_between_layers=False. Set block_idles=False to disable this behavior, whcih typically results in global idle gates being removed by the compiler.
gate_declarations (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary that provides unitary maps for particular gates that are not already in the quil syntax.
 Returns
str – A quil string.
 convert_to_openqasm(self, num_qubits=None, standard_gates_version='u3', gatename_conversion=None, qubit_conversion=None, block_between_layers=True, block_between_gates=False, gateargs_map=None)¶
Converts this circuit to an openqasm string.
 Parameters
num_qubits (int, optional) – The number of qubits for the openqasm file. If None, then this is assumed to equal the number of line labels in this circuit.
version (string, optional) – Either ‘u3’ or ‘xsxrz’. Specifies the naming convention for the QASM gates. With ‘u3’, all singlequbit gates are specified in terms of the ‘u3’ gate, used by IBM and QisKit until ~2021 (see the qasm_u3 function). With ‘xsxrz’, all singlegates are specified in terms of ‘x’ (an x pi rotation), ‘sx’ (an x pi/2 rotation) and ‘rz’ (a parameterized rotation around z by an angle theta).
gatename_conversion (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary that converts the gatenames in the circuit to the gatenames that will appear in the openqasm output. If only standard pyGSTi names are used (e.g., ‘Gh’, ‘Gp’, ‘Gcnot’, ‘Gcphase’, etc) this dictionary need not be specified, and an automatic conversion to the standard openqasm names will be implemented.
qubit_conversion (dict, optional) – If not None, a dictionary converting the qubit labels in the circuit to the desired qubit labels in the openqasm output. Can be left as None if the qubit labels are either (1) integers, or (2) of the form ‘Qi’ for integer i. In this case they are converted to integers (i.e., for (1) the mapping is trivial, for (2) the mapping strips the ‘Q’).
block_between_layers (bool, optional) – When True, add in a barrier after every circuit layer. Including such barriers can be important for QCVV testing, as this can help reduce the “behindthescenes” compilation (beyond necessary conversion to native instructions) experience by the circuit.
gateargs_map (dict, optional) – If not None, a dict that maps strings (representing pyGSTi standard gate names) to functions that map the parameters of a pyGSTi gate to a string to be combined with the QASM name to specify the specific gate, in QASM. If only standard pyGSTi names are used (e.g., ‘Gh’, ‘Gzr’, ‘Gczr, etc) or none of the gates are parameterized, this dictionary need not be specified, and an automatic conversion to the standard openqasm format will be implemented.
 Returns
str – An openqasm string.
 simulate(self, model, return_all_outcomes=False)¶
Compute the outcome probabilities of this Circuit using model as a model for the gates.
The order of the outcome strings (e.g., ‘0100’) is w.r.t. to the ordering of the qubits in the circuit. That is, the ith element of the outcome string corresponds to the qubit with label self.line_labels[i].
 Parameters
model (Model) – A description of the gate and SPAM operations corresponding to the labels stored in this Circuit. If this model is over more qubits than the circuit, the output will be the probabilities for the qubits in the circuit marginalized, if possible over the other qubits. But, the simulation is over the full set of qubits in the model, and so the time taken for the simulation scales with the number of qubits in the model. For models where “spectator” qubits do not affect the qubits in this circuit (such as with perfect gates), more efficient simulations will be obtained by first creating a model only over the qubits in this circuit.
return_all_outcomes (bool, optional) – Whether to include outcomes in the returned dictionary that have zero probability. When False, the threshold for discarding an outcome as z ero probability is 10^12.
 Returns
probs (dictionary) – A dictionary with keys equal to all (return_all_outcomes is True) or possibly only some (return_all_outcomes is False) of the possible outcomes, and values that are float probabilities.
 done_editing(self)¶
Make this circuit readonly, so that it can be hashed (e.g. used as a dictionary key).
This is done automatically when attempting to hash a
Circuit
for the first time, so there’s calling this function can usually be skipped (but it’s good for code clarity). Returns
None
 expand_instruments_and_separate_povm(self, model, observed_outcomes=None)¶
Creates a dictionary of
SeparatePOVMCircuit
objects from expanding the instruments of this circuit.Each key of the returned dictionary replaces the instruments in this circuit with a selection of their members. (The size of the resulting dictionary is the product of the sizes of each instrument appearing in this circuit when observed_outcomes is None). Keys are stored as
SeparatePOVMCircuit
objects so it’s easy to keep track of which POVM outcomes (effects) correspond to observed data. This function is, for the most part, used internally to process a circuit before computing its outcome probabilities. Parameters
model (Model) –
The model used to provide necessary details regarding the expansion, including:
default SPAM layers
definitions of instrumentcontaining layers
expansions of individual instruments and POVMs
 Returns
OrderedDict – A dict whose keys are
SeparatePOVMCircuit
objects and whose values are tuples of the outcome labels corresponding to this circuit, one per POVM effect held in the key.
 class pygsti.extras.crosstalk._DataSet(oli_data=None, time_data=None, rep_data=None, circuits=None, circuit_indices=None, outcome_labels=None, outcome_label_indices=None, static=False, file_to_load_from=None, collision_action='aggregate', comment=None, aux_info=None)¶
Bases:
object
An association between Circuits and outcome counts, serving as the input data for many QCVV protocols.
The DataSet class associates circuits with counts or time series of counts for each outcome label, and can be thought of as a table with gate strings labeling the rows and outcome labels and/or time labeling the columns. It is designed to behave similarly to a dictionary of dictionaries, so that counts are accessed by:
count = dataset[circuit][outcomeLabel]
in the timeindependent case, and in the timedependent case, for integer time index i >= 0,
outcomeLabel = dataset[circuit][i].outcome count = dataset[circuit][i].count time = dataset[circuit][i].time
 Parameters
oli_data (list or numpy.ndarray) – When static == True, a 1D numpy array containing outcome label indices (integers), concatenated for all sequences. Otherwise, a list of 1D numpy arrays, one array per gate sequence. In either case, this quantity is indexed by the values of circuit_indices or the index of circuits.
time_data (list or numpy.ndarray) – Same format at oli_data except stores floatingpoint timestamp values.
rep_data (list or numpy.ndarray) – Same format at oli_data except stores integer repetition counts for each “data bin” (i.e. (outcome,time) pair). If all repetitions equal 1 (“singleshot” timestampted data), then rep_data can be None (no repetitions).
circuits (list of (tuples or Circuits)) – Each element is a tuple of operation labels or a Circuit object. Indices for these strings are assumed to ascend from 0. These indices must correspond to the time series of spamlabel indices (above). Only specify this argument OR circuit_indices, not both.
circuit_indices (ordered dictionary) – An OrderedDict with keys equal to circuits (tuples of operation labels) and values equal to integer indices associating a row/element of counts with the circuit. Only specify this argument OR circuits, not both.
outcome_labels (list of strings or int) – Specifies the set of spam labels for the DataSet. Indices for the spam labels are assumed to ascend from 0, starting with the first element of this list. These indices will associate each elememtn of timeseries with a spam label. Only specify this argument OR outcome_label_indices, not both. If an int, specifies that the outcome labels should be those for a standard set of this many qubits.
outcome_label_indices (ordered dictionary) – An OrderedDict with keys equal to spam labels (strings) and value equal to integer indices associating a spam label with given index. Only specify this argument OR outcome_labels, not both.
static (bool) –
 When True, create a readonly, i.e. “static” DataSet which cannot be modified. In
this case you must specify the timeseries data, circuits, and spam labels.
 When False, create a DataSet that can have time series data added to it. In this case,
you only need to specify the spam labels.
file_to_load_from (string or file object) – Specify this argument and no others to create a static DataSet by loading from a file (just like using the load(…) function).
collision_action ({"aggregate","overwrite","keepseparate"}) – Specifies how duplicate circuits should be handled. “aggregate” adds duplicatecircuit counts to the same circuit’s data at the next integer timestamp. “overwrite” only keeps the latest given data for a circuit. “keepseparate” tags duplicatecircuits by setting the .occurrence ID of added circuits that are already contained in this data set to the next available positive integer.
comment (string, optional) – A userspecified comment string that gets carried around with the data. A common use for this field is to attach to the data details regarding its collection.
aux_info (dict, optional) – A userspecified dictionary of percircuit auxiliary information. Keys should be the circuits in this DataSet and value should be Python dictionaries.
 __iter__(self)¶
 __len__(self)¶
 __contains__(self, circuit)¶
Test whether data set contains a given circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels or a Circuit instance which specifies the the circuit to check for.
 Returns
bool – whether circuit was found.
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 __getitem__(self, circuit)¶
 __setitem__(self, circuit, outcome_dict_or_series)¶
 __delitem__(self, circuit)¶
 _get_row(self, circuit)¶
Get a row of data from this DataSet.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit or tuple) – The gate sequence to extract data for.
 Returns
_DataSetRow
 _set_row(self, circuit, outcome_dict_or_series)¶
Set the counts for a row of this DataSet.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit or tuple) – The gate sequence to extract data for.
outcome_dict_or_series (dict or tuple) – The outcome count data, either a dictionary of outcome counts (with keys as outcome labels) or a tuple of lists. In the latter case this can be a 2tuple: (outcomelabellist, timestamplist) or a 3tuple: (outcomelabellist, timestamplist, repetitioncountlist).
 Returns
None
 keys(self)¶
Returns the circuits used as keys of this DataSet.
 Returns
list – A list of Circuit objects which index the data counts within this data set.
 items(self)¶
Iterator over (circuit, timeSeries) pairs.
Here circuit is a tuple of operation labels and timeSeries is a
_DataSetRow
instance, which behaves similarly to a list of spam labels whose index corresponds to the time step. Returns
_DataSetKVIterator
 values(self)¶
Iterator over _DataSetRow instances corresponding to the time series data for each circuit.
 Returns
_DataSetValueIterator
 property outcome_labels(self)¶
Get a list of all the outcome labels contained in this DataSet.
 Returns
list of strings or tuples – A list where each element is an outcome label (which can be a string or a tuple of strings).
 property timestamps(self)¶
Get a list of all the (unique) timestamps contained in this DataSet.
 Returns
list of floats – A list where each element is a timestamp.
 gate_labels(self, prefix='G')¶
Get a list of all the distinct operation labels used in the circuits of this dataset.
 Parameters
prefix (str) – Filter the circuit labels so that only elements beginning with this prefix are returned. None performs no filtering.
 Returns
list of strings – A list where each element is a operation label.
 degrees_of_freedom(self, circuits=None, method='present_outcomes1', aggregate_times=True)¶
Returns the number of independent degrees of freedom in the data for the circuits in circuits.
 Parameters
circuits (list of Circuits) – The list of circuits to count degrees of freedom for. If None then all of the DataSet’s strings are used.
method ({'all_outcomes1', 'present_outcomes1', 'tuned'}) – How the degrees of freedom should be computed. ‘all_outcomes1’ takes the number of circuits and multiplies this by the total number of outcomes (the length of what is returned by outcome_labels()) minus one. ‘present_outcomes1’ counts on a percircuit basis the number of present (usually = nonzero) outcomes recorded minus one. ‘tuned’ should be the most accurate, as it accounts for lowN “Poisson bump” behavior, but it is not the default because it is still under development. For timestamped data, see aggreate_times below.
aggregate_times (bool, optional) – Whether counts that occur at different times should be tallied separately. If True, then even when counts occur at different times degrees of freedom are tallied on a percircuit basis. If False, then counts occuring at distinct times are treated as independent of those an any other time, and are tallied separately. So, for example, if aggregate_times is False and a data row has 0 and 1counts of 45 & 55 at time=0 and 42 and 58 at time=1 this row would contribute 2 degrees of freedom, not 1. It can sometimes be useful to set this to False when the DataSet holds coarsegrained data, but usually you want this to be left as True (especially for timeseries data).
 Returns
int
 _collisionaction_update_circuit(self, circuit)¶
 _add_explicit_repetition_counts(self)¶
Build internal repetition counts if they don’t exist already.
This method is usually unnecessary, as repetition counts are almost always build as soon as they are needed.
 Returns
None
 add_count_dict(self, circuit, count_dict, record_zero_counts=True, aux=None, update_ol=True)¶
Add a single circuit’s counts to this DataSet
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object
count_dict (dict) – A dictionary with keys = outcome labels and values = counts
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts are actually recorded (stored) in this DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
aux (dict, optional) – A dictionary of auxiliary meta information to be included with this set of data counts (associated with circuit).
update_ol (bool, optional) – This argument is for internal use only and should be left as True.
 Returns
None
 add_count_list(self, circuit, outcome_labels, counts, record_zero_counts=True, aux=None, update_ol=True, unsafe=False)¶
Add a single circuit’s counts to this DataSet
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object
outcome_labels (list or tuple) – The outcome labels corresponding to counts.
counts (list or tuple) – The counts themselves.
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts are actually recorded (stored) in this DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
aux (dict, optional) – A dictionary of auxiliary meta information to be included with this set of data counts (associated with circuit).
update_ol (bool, optional) – This argument is for internal use only and should be left as True.
unsafe (bool, optional) – True means that outcome_labels is guaranteed to hold tupletype outcome labels and never plain strings. Only set this to True if you know what you’re doing.
 Returns
None
 add_count_arrays(self, circuit, outcome_index_array, count_array, record_zero_counts=True, aux=None)¶
Add the outcomes for a single circuit, formatted as raw data arrays.
 Parameters
circuit (Circuit) – The circuit to add data for.
outcome_index_array (numpy.ndarray) – An array of outcome indices, which must be values of self.olIndex (which maps outcome labels to indices).
count_array (numpy.ndarray) – An array of integer (or sometimes floating point) counts, one corresponding to each outcome index (element of outcome_index_array).
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zero counts (zeros in count_array should be stored explicitly or not stored and inferred. Setting to False reduces the space taken by data sets containing lots of zero counts, but makes some objective function evaluations less precise.
aux (dict or None, optional) – If not None a dictionary of userdefined auxiliary information that should be associated with this circuit.
 Returns
None
 add_cirq_trial_result(self, circuit, trial_result, key)¶
Add a single circuit’s counts — stored in a Cirq TrialResult — to this DataSet
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object. Note that this must be a PyGSTi circuit — not a Cirq circuit.
trial_result (cirq.TrialResult) – The TrialResult to add
key (str) – The string key of the measurement. Set by cirq.measure.
 Returns
None
 add_raw_series_data(self, circuit, outcome_label_list, time_stamp_list, rep_count_list=None, overwrite_existing=True, record_zero_counts=True, aux=None, update_ol=True, unsafe=False)¶
Add a single circuit’s counts to this DataSet
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object
outcome_label_list (list) – A list of outcome labels (strings or tuples). An element’s index links it to a particular time step (i.e. the ith element of the list specifies the outcome of the ith measurement in the series).
time_stamp_list (list) – A list of floating point timestamps, each associated with the single corresponding outcome in outcome_label_list. Must be the same length as outcome_label_list.
rep_count_list (list, optional) – A list of integer counts specifying how many outcomes of type given by outcome_label_list occurred at the time given by time_stamp_list. If None, then all counts are assumed to be 1. When not None, must be the same length as outcome_label_list.
overwrite_existing (bool, optional) – Whether to overwrite the data for circuit (if it exists). If False, then the given lists are appended (added) to existing data.
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts (elements of rep_count_list that are zero) are actually recorded (stored) in this DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
aux (dict, optional) – A dictionary of auxiliary meta information to be included with this set of data counts (associated with circuit).
update_ol (bool, optional) – This argument is for internal use only and should be left as True.
unsafe (bool, optional) – When True, don’t bother checking that outcome_label_list contains tupletype outcome labels and automatically upgrading strings to 1tuples. Only set this to True if you know what you’re doing and need the marginally faster performance.
 Returns
None
 _add_raw_arrays(self, circuit, oli_array, time_array, rep_array, overwrite_existing, record_zero_counts, aux)¶
 update_ol(self)¶
Updates the internal outcomelabel list in this dataset.
Call this after calling add_count_dict(…) or add_raw_series_data(…) with update_olIndex=False.
 Returns
None
 add_series_data(self, circuit, count_dict_list, time_stamp_list, overwrite_existing=True, record_zero_counts=True, aux=None)¶
Add a single circuit’s counts to this DataSet
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object
count_dict_list (list) – A list of dictionaries holding the outcomelabel:count pairs for each time step (times given by time_stamp_list.
time_stamp_list (list) – A list of floating point timestamps, each associated with an entire dictionary of outcomes specified by count_dict_list.
overwrite_existing (bool, optional) – If True, overwrite any existing data for the circuit. If False, add the count data with the next nonnegative integer timestamp.
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts (elements of the dictionaries in count_dict_list that are zero) are actually recorded (stored) in this DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
aux (dict, optional) – A dictionary of auxiliary meta information to be included with this set of data counts (associated with circuit).
 Returns
None
 aggregate_outcomes(self, label_merge_dict, record_zero_counts=True)¶
Creates a DataSet which merges certain outcomes in this DataSet.
Used, for example, to aggregate a 2qubit 4outcome DataSet into a 1qubit 2outcome DataSet.
 Parameters
label_merge_dict (dictionary) – The dictionary whose keys define the new DataSet outcomes, and whose items are lists of input DataSet outcomes that are to be summed together. For example, if a twoqubit DataSet has outcome labels “00”, “01”, “10”, and “11”, and we want to ‘’aggregate out’’ the second qubit, we could use label_merge_dict = {‘0’:[‘00’,’01’],’1’:[‘10’,’11’]}. When doing this, however, it may be better to use :function:`filter_qubits` which also updates the circuits.
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts are actually recorded (stored) in the returned (merged) DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
 Returns
merged_dataset (DataSet object) – The DataSet with outcomes merged according to the rules given in label_merge_dict.
 aggregate_std_nqubit_outcomes(self, qubit_indices_to_keep, record_zero_counts=True)¶
Creates a DataSet which merges certain outcomes in this DataSet.
Used, for example, to aggregate a 2qubit 4outcome DataSet into a 1qubit 2outcome DataSet. This assumes that outcome labels are in the standard format whereby each qubit corresponds to a single ‘0’ or ‘1’ character.
 Parameters
qubit_indices_to_keep (list) – A list of integers specifying which qubits should be kept, that is, not aggregated.
record_zero_counts (bool, optional) – Whether zerocounts are actually recorded (stored) in the returned (merged) DataSet. If False, then zero counts are ignored, except for potentially registering new outcome labels.
 Returns
merged_dataset (DataSet object) – The DataSet with outcomes merged.
 add_auxiliary_info(self, circuit, aux)¶
Add auxiliary meta information to circuit.
 Parameters
circuit (tuple or Circuit) – A tuple of operation labels specifying the circuit or a Circuit object
aux (dict, optional) – A dictionary of auxiliary meta information to be included with this set of data counts (associated with circuit).
 Returns
None
 add_counts_from_dataset(self, other_data_set)¶
Append another DataSet’s data to this DataSet
 Parameters
other_data_set (DataSet) – The dataset to take counts from.
 Returns
None
 add_series_from_dataset(self, other_data_set)¶
Append another DataSet’s series data to this DataSet
 Parameters
other_data_set (DataSet) – The dataset to take time series data from.
 Returns
None
 property meantimestep(self)¶
The mean timestep, averaged over the timestep for each circuit and over circuits.
 Returns
float
 property has_constant_totalcounts_pertime(self)¶
True if the data for every circuit has the same number of total counts at every data collection time.
This will return True if there is a different number of total counts per circuit (i.e., after aggregating over time), as long as every circuit has the same total counts per time step (this will happen when the number of timesteps varies between circuit).
 Returns
bool
 property totalcounts_pertime(self)¶
Total counts per time, if this is constant over times and circuits.
When that doesn’t hold, an error is raised.
 Returns
float or int
 property has_constant_totalcounts(self)¶
True if the data for every circuit has the same number of total counts.
 Returns
bool
 property has_trivial_timedependence(self)¶
True if all the data in this DataSet occurs at time 0.
 Returns
bool
 __str__(self)¶
Return str(self).
 to_str(self, mode='auto')¶
Render this DataSet as a string.
 Parameters
mode ({"auto","timedependent","timeindependent"}) – Whether to display the data as timeseries of outcome counts (“timedependent”) or to report peroutcome counts aggregated over time (“timeindependent”). If “auto” is specified, then the timeindependent mode is used only if all time stamps in the DataSet are equal to zero (trivial time dependence).
 Returns
str
 truncate(self, list_of_circuits_to_keep, missing_action='raise')¶
Create a truncated dataset comprised of a subset of the circuits in this dataset.
 Parameters
list_of_circuits_to_keep (list of (tuples or Circuits)) – A list of the circuits for the new returned dataset. If a circuit is given in this list that isn’t in the original data set, missing_action determines the behavior.
missing_action ({"raise","warn","ignore"}) – What to do when a string in list_of_circuits_to_keep is not in the data set (raise a KeyError, issue a warning, or do nothing).
 Returns
DataSet – The truncated data set.
 time_slice(self, start_time, end_time, aggregate_to_time=None)¶
Creates a DataSet by aggregating the counts within the [start_time,`end_time`) interval.
 Parameters
start_time (float) – The starting time.
end_time (float) – The ending time.
aggregate_to_time (float, optional) – If not None, a single timestamp to give all the data in the specified range, resulting in timeindependent DataSet. If None, then the original timestamps are preserved.
 Returns
DataSet
 split_by_time(self, aggregate_to_time=None)¶
Creates a dictionary of DataSets, each of which is a equaltime slice of this DataSet.
The keys of the returned dictionary are the distinct timestamps in this dataset.
 Parameters
aggregate_to_time (float, optional) – If not None, a single timestamp to give all the data in each returned data set, resulting in timeindependent `DataSet`s. If None, then the original timestamps are preserved.
 Returns
OrderedDict – A dictionary of
DataSet
objects whose keys are the timestamp values of the original (this) data set in sorted order.
 drop_zero_counts(self)¶
Creates a copy of this data set that doesn’t include any zero counts.
 Returns
DataSet
 process_times(self, process_times_array_fn)¶
Manipulate this DataSet’s timestamps according to processor_fn.
For example, using, the folloing process_times_array_fn would change the timestamps for each circuit to sequential integers.
``` def process_times_array_fn(times):
return list(range(len(times)))
 Parameters
process_times_array_fn (function) – A function which takes a single arrayoftimestamps argument and returns another similarlysized array. This function is called, once per circuit, with the circuit’s array of timestamps.
 Returns
DataSet – A new data set with altered timestamps.
 process_circuits(self, processor_fn, aggregate=False)¶
Create a new data set by manipulating this DataSet’s circuits (keys) according to processor_fn.
The new DataSet’s circuits result from by running each of this DataSet’s circuits through processor_fn. This can be useful when “tracing out” qubits in a dataset containing multiqubit data.
 Parameters
processor_fn (function) – A function which takes a single Circuit argument and returns another (or the same) Circuit. This function may also return None, in which case the data for that string is deleted.
aggregate (bool, optional) – When True, aggregate the data for ciruits that processor_fn assigns to the same “new” circuit. When False, use the data from the last original circuit that maps to a given “new” circuit.
 Returns
DataSet
 process_circuits_inplace(self, processor_fn, aggregate=False)¶
Manipulate this DataSet’s circuits (keys) inplace according to processor_fn.
All of this DataSet’s circuits are updated by running each one through processor_fn. This can be useful when “tracing out” qubits in a dataset containing multiqubit data.
 Parameters
processor_fn (function) – A function which takes a single Circuit argument and returns another (or the same) Circuit. This function may also return None, in which case the data for that string is deleted.
aggregate (bool, optional) – When True, aggregate the data for ciruits that processor_fn assigns to the same “new” circuit. When False, use the data from the last original circuit that maps to a given “new” circuit.
 Returns
None
 remove(self, circuits, missing_action='raise')¶
Remove (delete) the data for circuits from this
DataSet
. Parameters
circuits (iterable) – An iterable over Circuitlike objects specifying the keys (circuits) to remove.
missing_action ({"raise","warn","ignore"}) – What to do when a string in circuits is not in this data set (raise a KeyError, issue a warning, or do nothing).
 Returns
None
 _remove(self, gstr_indices)¶
Removes the data in indices given by gstr_indices
 copy(self)¶
Make a copy of this DataSet.
 Returns
DataSet
 copy_nonstatic(self)¶
Make a nonstatic copy of this DataSet.
 Returns
DataSet
 done_adding_data(self)¶
Promotes a nonstatic DataSet to a static (readonly) DataSet.
This method should be called after all data has been added.
 Returns
None
 __getstate__(self)¶
 __setstate__(self, state_dict)¶
 save(self, file_or_filename)¶
 write_binary(self, file_or_filename)¶
Write this data set to a binaryformat file.
 Parameters
file_or_filename (string or file object) – If a string, interpreted as a filename. If this filename ends in “.gz”, the file will be gzip compressed.
 Returns
None
 load(self, file_or_filename)¶
 read_binary(self, file_or_filename)¶
Read a DataSet from a binary file, clearing any data is contained previously.
The file should have been created with :method:`DataSet.write_binary`
 Parameters
file_or_filename (str or buffer) – The file or filename to load from.
 Returns
None
 rename_outcome_labels(self, old_to_new_dict)¶
Replaces existing output labels with new ones as per old_to_new_dict.
 Parameters
old_to_new_dict (dict) – A mapping from old/existing outcome labels to new ones. Strings in keys or values are automatically converted to 1tuples. Missing outcome labels are left unaltered.
 Returns
None
 add_std_nqubit_outcome_labels(self, nqubits)¶
Adds all the “standard” outcome labels (e.g. ‘0010’) on nqubits qubits.
This is useful to ensure that, even if not all outcomes appear in the data, that all are recognized as being potentially valid outcomes (and so attempts to get counts for these outcomes will be 0 rather than raising an error).
 Parameters
nqubits (int) – The number of qubits. For example, if equal to 3 the outcome labels ‘000’, ‘001’, … ‘111’ are added.
 Returns
None
 add_outcome_labels(self, outcome_labels, update_ol=True)¶
Adds new valid outcome labels.
Ensures that all the elements of outcome_labels are stored as valid outcomes for circuits in this DataSet, adding new outcomes as necessary.
 Parameters
outcome_labels (list or generator) – A list or generator of string or tuplevalued outcome labels.
update_ol (bool, optional) – Whether to update internal mappings to reflect the new outcome labels. Leave this as True unless you really know what you’re doing.
 Returns
None
 auxinfo_dataframe(self, pivot_valuename=None, pivot_value=None, drop_columns=False)¶
Create a Pandas dataframe with auxdata from this dataset.
 Parameters
pivot_valuename (str, optional) – If not None, the resulting dataframe is pivoted using pivot_valuename as the column whose values name the pivoted table’s column names. If None and pivot_value is not None,`”ValueName”` is used.
pivot_value (str, optional) – If not None, the resulting dataframe is pivoted such that values of the pivot_value column are rearranged into new columns whose names are given by the values of the pivot_valuename column. If None and pivot_valuename is not None,`”Value”` is used.
drop_columns (bool or list, optional) – A list of column names to drop (prior to performing any pivot). If True appears in this list or is given directly, then all constantvalued columns are dropped as well. No columns are dropped when drop_columns == False.
 Returns
pandas.DataFrame
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.tuple_replace_at_index(tup, ix, val)¶
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.load_pygsti_dataset(filename)¶
Loads a pygsti dataset from file.
This is a wrapper that just checks the first line, and replaces it with the newer outcome specification format if its the old type.
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.flatten(l)¶
Flattens an irregualr list. From https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2158395/flattenanirregularlistoflists
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.form_ct_data_matrix(ds, number_of_regions, settings, filter_lengths=[])¶
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.do_basic_crosstalk_detection(ds, number_of_regions, settings, confidence=0.95, verbosity=1, name=None, assume_independent_settings=True, filter_lengths=[])¶
Implements crosstalk detection on multiqubit data (finegrained data with entries for each experiment).
 Parameters
ds (pyGSTi DataSet or numpy array) – The multiqubit data to analyze. If this is a numpy array, it must contain time series data and it must be 2dimensional with each entry being a sequence of settings and measurment outcomes for each qubit region. A region is a set of one or more qubits and crosstalk is assessed between regions. The first n entries are the outcomes and the following entries are settings.
number_of_regions (int, number of regions in experiment) –
settings (list of length number_of_regions, indicating the number of settings for each qubit region.) –
confidence (float, optional) –
verbosity (int, optional) –
name (str, optional) –
filter_lengths (list of lengths. If this is not empty the dataset will be filtered and the analysis will only be) – done on the sequences of lengths specified in this list. This argument is only used if the dataset is passed in as a pyGSTi DataSet
 Returns
results (CrosstalkResults object) – The results of the crosstalk detection analysis. This contains: output skeleton graph and DAG from PC Algorithm indicating regions with detected crosstalk, all of the input information.
 pygsti.extras.crosstalk.crosstalk_detection_experiment2(pspec, lengths, circuits_per_length, circuit_population_sz, multiplier=3, idle_prob=0.1, structure='1Q', descriptor='A set of crosstalk detections experiments', verbosity=1)¶