pygsti.baseobjs.basis
¶
Defines the Basis object and supporting functions
Module Contents¶
Classes¶
An ordered set of labeled matrices/vectors. 

A 

A Basis whose elements are specified directly. 

A basis that is included within and integrated into pyGSTi. 

A basis that is the direct sum of one or more "component" bases. 

A Basis that is the tensor product of one or more "component" bases. 

A basis that embeds a basis for a smaller state space within a larger state space. 
Functions¶

NOTE: same as matrixtools.sparse_equal  but can't import that here 
 pygsti.baseobjs.basis._sparse_equal(a, b, atol=1e08)¶
NOTE: same as matrixtools.sparse_equal  but can’t import that here
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.Basis(name, longname, real, sparse)¶
Bases:
pygsti.baseobjs.nicelyserializable.NicelySerializable
An ordered set of labeled matrices/vectors.
The base class for basis objects. A basis in pyGSTi is an abstract notion of a set of labeled elements, or “vectors”. Each basis has a certain size, and has .elements, .labels, and .ellookup members, the latter being a dictionary mapping of labels to elements.
An important point to note that isn’t immediately intuitive is that while Basis object holds elements (in its .elements property) these are not the same as its vectors (given by the object’s vector_elements property). Often times, in what we term a “simple” basis, the you just flatten an element to get the corresponding vectorelement. This works for bases where the elements are either vectors (where flattening does nothing) and matrices. By storing elements as distinct from vector_elements, the Basis can capture additional structure of the elements (such as viewing them as matrices) that can be helpful for their display and interpretation. The elements are also sometimes referred to as the “natural elements” because they represent how to display the element in a natrual way. A nonsimple basis occurs when vector_elements need to be stored as elements in a larger “embedded” way so that these elements can be displayed and interpeted naturally.
A second important note is that there is assumed to be some underlying “standard” basis underneath all the bases in pyGSTi. The elements in a Basis are always written in this standard basis. In the case of the “std”named basis in pyGSTi, these elements are just the trivial vector or matrix units, so one can rightly view the “std” pyGSTi basis as the “standard” basis for a that particular dimension.
The arguments below describe the basic properties of all basis objects in pyGSTi. It is important to remember that the vector_elements of a basis are different from its elements (see the
Basis
docstring), and that dim refers to the vector elements whereas elshape refers to the elements.For example, consider a 2element Basis containing the I and X Pauli matrices. The size of this basis is 2, as there are two elements (and two vector elements). Since vector elements are the length4 flattened Pauli matrices, the dimension (dim) is 4. Since the elements are 2x2 Pauli matrices, the elshape is (2,2).
As another example consider a basis which spans all the diagonal 2x2 matrices. The elements of this basis are the two matrix units with a 1 in the (0,0) or (1,1) location. The vector elements, however, are the length2 [1,0] and [0,1] vectors obtained by extracting just the diagonal entries from each basis element. Thus, for this basis, size=2, dim=2, and elshape=(2,2)  so the dimension is not just the product of elshape entries (equivalently, elsize).
 Parameters
name (string) – The name of the basis. This can be anything, but is usually short and abbreviated. There are several types of bases built into pyGSTi that can be constructed by this name.
longname (string) – A more descriptive name for the basis.
real (bool) – Elements and vector elements are always allowed to have complex entries. This argument indicates whether the coefficients in the expression of an arbitrary vector in this basis must be real. For example, if real=True, then when pyGSTi transforms a vector in some other basis to a vector in this basis, it will demand that the values of that vector (i.e. the coefficients which multiply this basis’s elements to obtain a vector in the “standard” basis) are real.
sparse (bool) – Whether the elements of .elements for this Basis are stored (when they are stored at all) as sparse matrices or vectors.
 dim¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 Type
int
 size¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 Type
int
 elshape¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 Type
int
 elndim¶
The number of element dimensions, i.e. len(self.elshape)
 Type
int
 elsize¶
The total element size, i.e. product(self.elshape)
 Type
int
 vector_elements¶
The “vectors” of this basis, always 1D (sparse or dense) arrays.
 Type
list
 classmethod cast(cls, name_or_basis_or_matrices, dim=None, sparse=None, classical_name='cl')¶
Convert various things that can describe a basis into a Basis object.
 Parameters
name_or_basis_or_matrices (various) –
Can take on a variety of values to produce different types of bases:
None: an empty ExpicitBasis
Basis: checked with dim and sparse and passed through.
str: BuiltinBasis or DirectSumBasis with the given name.
 list: an ExplicitBasis if given matrices/vectors or a
DirectSumBasis if given a (name, dim) pairs.
dim (int or StateSpace, optional) – The dimension of the basis to create. Sometimes this can be inferred based on name_or_basis_or_matrices, other times it must be supplied. This is the dimension of the space that this basis fully or partially spans. This is equal to the number of basis elements in a “full” (ordinary) basis. When a StateSpace object is given, a more detailed directsumoftensorproductblocks structure for the state space (rather than a single dimension) is described, and a basis is produced for this space. For instance, a DirectSumBasis basis of TensorProdBasis components can result when there are multiple tensorproduct blocks and these blocks consist of multiple factors.
sparse (bool, optional) – Whether the resulting basis should be “sparse”, meaning that its elements will be sparse rather than dense matrices.
classical_name (str, optional) – An alternate builtin basis name that should be used when constructing the bases for the classical sectors of dim, when dim is a StateSpace object.
 Returns
Basis
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 property elndim(self)¶
The number of element dimensions, i.e. len(self.elshape)
 Returns
int
 property elsize(self)¶
The total element size, i.e. product(self.elshape)
 Returns
int
 is_simple(self)¶
Whether the flattenedelement vector space is the same space as the space this basis’s vectors belong to.
 Returns
bool
 is_complete(self)¶
Whether this is a complete basis, i.e. this basis’s vectors span the entire space that they live in.
 Returns
bool
 is_partial(self)¶
The negative of :method:`is_complete`, effectively “is_incomplete”.
 Returns
bool
 property vector_elements(self)¶
The “vectors” of this basis, always 1D (sparse or dense) arrays.
 Returns
list – A list of 1D arrays.
 copy(self)¶
Make a copy of this Basis object.
 Returns
Basis
 with_sparsity(self, desired_sparsity)¶
Returns either this basis or a copy of it with the desired sparsity.
If this basis has the desired sparsity it is simply returned. If not, this basis is copied to one that does.
 Parameters
desired_sparsity (bool) – The sparsity (True for sparse elements, False for dense elements) that is desired.
 Returns
Basis
 abstract _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __str__(self)¶
Return str(self).
 __getitem__(self, index)¶
 __len__(self)¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 create_transform_matrix(self, to_basis)¶
Get the matrix that transforms a vector from this basis to to_basis.
 Parameters
to_basis (Basis or string) – The basis to transform to or a builtin basis name. In the latter case, a basis to transform to is built with the same structure as this basis but with all components constructed from the given name.
 Returns
numpy.ndarray (even if basis is sparse)
 reverse_transform_matrix(self, from_basis)¶
Get the matrix that transforms a vector from from_basis to this basis.
The reverse of :method:`create_transform_matrix`.
 Parameters
from_basis (Basis or string) – The basis to transform from or a builtin basis name. In the latter case, a basis to transform from is built with the same structure as this basis but with all components constructed from the given name.
 Returns
numpy.ndarray (even if basis is sparse)
 is_normalized(self)¶
Check if a basis is normalized, meaning that Tr(Bi Bi) = 1.0.
Available only to bases whose elements are matrices for now.
 Returns
bool
 property to_std_transform_matrix(self)¶
Retrieve the matrix that transforms a vector from this basis to the standard basis of this basis’s dimension.
 Returns
numpy array or scipy.sparse.lil_matrix – An array of shape (dim, size) where dim is the dimension of this basis (the length of its vectors) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 property from_std_transform_matrix(self)¶
Retrieve the matrix that transforms vectors from the standard basis to this basis.
 Returns
numpy array or scipy sparse matrix – An array of shape (size, dim) where dim is the dimension of this basis (the length of its vectors) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 property to_elementstd_transform_matrix(self)¶
Get transformation matrix from this basis to the “element space”.
Get the matrix that transforms vectors in this basis (with length equal to the dim of this basis) to vectors in the “element space”  that is, vectors in the same standard basis that the elements of this basis are expressed in.
 Returns
numpy array – An array of shape (element_dim, size) where element_dim is the dimension, i.e. size, of the elements of this basis (e.g. 16 if the elements are 4x4 matrices) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 property from_elementstd_transform_matrix(self)¶
Get transformation matrix from “element space” to this basis.
Get the matrix that transforms vectors in the “element space”  that is, vectors in the same standard basis that the elements of this basis are expressed in  to vectors in this basis (with length equal to the dim of this basis).
 Returns
numpy array – An array of shape (size, element_dim) where element_dim is the dimension, i.e. size, of the elements of this basis (e.g. 16 if the elements are 4x4 matrices) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 create_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name)¶
Create an equivalent basis with components of type builtin_basis_name.
Create a
Basis
that is equivalent in structure & dimension to this basis but whose simple components (perhaps just this basis itself) is of the builtin basis type given by builtin_basis_name. Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str) – The name of a builtin basis, e.g. “pp”, “gm”, or “std”. Used to construct the simple components of the returned basis.
 Returns
Basis
 create_simple_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name=None)¶
Create a basis of type builtin_basis_name whose elements are compatible with this basis.
Create a simple basis and one without components (e.g. a
TensorProdBasis
, is a simple basis w/components) of the builtin type specified whose dimension is compatible with the elements of this basis. This function might also be named “element_equivalent”, as it returns the builtin_basis_nameanalogue of the standard basis that this basis’s elements are expressed in. Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str, optional) – The name of the builtin basis to use. If None, then a copy of this basis is returned (if it’s simple) or this basis’s name is used to try to construct a simple and componentfree version of the same builtinbasis type.
 Returns
Basis
 is_compatible_with_state_space(self, state_space)¶
Checks whether this basis is compatible with a given state space.
 Parameters
state_space (StateSpace) – the state space to check.
 Returns
bool
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.LazyBasis(name, longname, real, sparse)¶
Bases:
Basis
A
Basis
whose labels and elements that are constructed only when at least one of them is needed.This class is also used as a base class for higherlevel, more specific basis classes.
 Parameters
name (string) – The name of the basis. This can be anything, but is usually short and abbreviated. There are several types of bases built into pyGSTi that can be constructed by this name.
longname (string) – A more descriptive name for the basis.
real (bool) – Elements and vector elements are always allowed to have complex entries. This argument indicates whether the coefficients in the expression of an arbitrary vector in this basis must be real. For example, if real=True, then when pyGSTi transforms a vector in some other basis to a vector in this basis, it will demand that the values of that vector (i.e. the coefficients which multiply this basis’s elements to obtain a vector in the “standard” basis) are real.
sparse (bool) – Whether the elements of .elements for this Basis are stored (when they are stored at all) as sparse matrices or vectors.
 ellookup¶
A dictionary mapping basis element labels to the elements themselves, for fast element lookup.
 Type
dict
 elements¶
The basis elements (sometimes different from the vectors)
 Type
numpy.ndarray
 labels¶
The basis labels
 Type
list
 abstract _lazy_build_elements(self)¶
 abstract _lazy_build_labels(self)¶
 property ellookup(self)¶
A dictionary mapping basis element labels to the elements themselves
 Returns
dict
 property elements(self)¶
The basis elements (sometimes different from the vectors)
 Returns
numpy.ndarray
 property labels(self)¶
The basis labels
 Returns
list
 __str__(self)¶
Return str(self).
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.ExplicitBasis(elements, labels=None, name=None, longname=None, real=False, sparse=None)¶
Bases:
Basis
A Basis whose elements are specified directly.
All explicit bases are simple: their vector space is always taken to be that of the the flattened elements.
 Parameters
elements (numpy.ndarray) – The basis elements (sometimes different from the vectors)
labels (list) – The basis labels
name (str, optional) – The name of this basis. If None, then a name will be automatically generated.
longname (str, optional) – A more descriptive name for this basis. If None, then the short name will be used.
real (bool, optional) – Whether the coefficients in the expression of an arbitrary vector as a linear combination of this basis’s elements must be real.
sparse (bool, optional) – Whether the elements of this Basis are stored as sparse matrices or vectors. If None, then this is automatically determined by the type of the initial object: elements[0] (sparse=False is used when len(elements) == 0).
 Count¶
The number of custom bases, used for serialized naming
 Type
int
 Count = 0¶
 _to_nice_serialization(self)¶
 classmethod _from_nice_serialization(cls, state)¶
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.BuiltinBasis(name, dim_or_statespace, sparse=False)¶
Bases:
LazyBasis
A basis that is included within and integrated into pyGSTi.
Such bases may, in most cases be represented merely by its name. (In actuality, a dimension is also required, but this is often able to be inferred from context.)
 Parameters
name ({"pp", "gm", "std", "qt", "id", "cl", "sv"}) – Name of the basis to be created.
dim_or_statespace (int or StateSpace) – The dimension of the basis to be created or the state space for which a basis should be created. Note that when this is an integer it is the dimension of the vectors, which correspond to flattened elements in simple cases. Thus, a 1qubit basis would have dimension 2 in the statevector (name=”sv”) case and dimension 4 when constructing a densitymatrix basis (e.g. name=”pp”).
sparse (bool, optional) – Whether basis elements should be stored as SciPy CSR sparse matrices or dense numpy arrays (the default).
 _to_nice_serialization(self)¶
 classmethod _from_nice_serialization(cls, state)¶
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 _lazy_build_elements(self)¶
 _lazy_build_labels(self)¶
 _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.DirectSumBasis(component_bases, name=None, longname=None)¶
Bases:
LazyBasis
A basis that is the direct sum of one or more “component” bases.
Elements of this basis are the union of the basis elements on each component, each embedded into a common blockdiagonal structure where each component occupies its own block. Thus, when there is more than one component, a DirectSumBasis is not a simple basis because the size of its elements is larger than the size of its vector space (which corresponds to just the diagonal blocks of its elements).
 Parameters
component_bases (iterable) – A list of the component bases. Each list elements may be either a Basis object or a tuple of arguments to :function:`Basis.cast`, e.g. (‘pp’,4).
name (str, optional) – The name of this basis. If None, the names of the component bases joined with “+” is used.
longname (str, optional) – A longer description of this basis. If None, then a long name is automatically generated.
 vector_elements¶
The “vectors” of this basis, always 1D (sparse or dense) arrays.
 Type
list
 _to_nice_serialization(self)¶
 classmethod _from_nice_serialization(cls, state)¶
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 _lazy_build_vector_elements(self)¶
 _lazy_build_elements(self)¶
 _lazy_build_labels(self)¶
 _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 property vector_elements(self)¶
The “vectors” of this basis, always 1D (sparse or dense) arrays.
 Returns
list
 property to_std_transform_matrix(self)¶
Retrieve the matrix that transforms a vector from this basis to the standard basis of this basis’s dimension.
 Returns
numpy array or scipy.sparse.lil_matrix – An array of shape (dim, size) where dim is the dimension of this basis (the length of its vectors) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 property to_elementstd_transform_matrix(self)¶
Get transformation matrix from this basis to the “element space”.
Get the matrix that transforms vectors in this basis (with length equal to the dim of this basis) to vectors in the “element space”  that is, vectors in the same standard basis that the elements of this basis are expressed in.
 Returns
numpy array – An array of shape (element_dim, size) where element_dim is the dimension, i.e. size, of the elements of this basis (e.g. 16 if the elements are 4x4 matrices) and size is the size of this basis (its number of vectors).
 create_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name)¶
Create an equivalent basis with components of type builtin_basis_name.
Create a Basis that is equivalent in structure & dimension to this basis but whose simple components (perhaps just this basis itself) is of the builtin basis type given by builtin_basis_name.
 Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str) – The name of a builtin basis, e.g. “pp”, “gm”, or “std”. Used to construct the simple components of the returned basis.
 Returns
DirectSumBasis
 create_simple_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name=None)¶
Create a basis of type builtin_basis_name whose elements are compatible with this basis.
Create a simple basis and one without components (e.g. a
TensorProdBasis
, is a simple basis w/components) of the builtin type specified whose dimension is compatible with the elements of this basis. This function might also be named “element_equivalent”, as it returns the builtin_basis_nameanalogue of the standard basis that this basis’s elements are expressed in. Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str, optional) – The name of the builtin basis to use. If None, then a copy of this basis is returned (if it’s simple) or this basis’s name is used to try to construct a simple and componentfree version of the same builtinbasis type.
 Returns
Basis
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.TensorProdBasis(component_bases, name=None, longname=None)¶
Bases:
LazyBasis
A Basis that is the tensor product of one or more “component” bases.
The elements of a TensorProdBasis consist of all tensor products of component basis elements (respecting the order given). The components of a TensorProdBasis must be simple bases so that kronecker products can be used to produce the parent basis’s elements.
A TensorProdBasis is a “simple” basis in that its flattened elements do correspond to its vectors.
 Parameters
component_bases (iterable) – A list of the component bases. Each list elements may be either a Basis object or a tuple of arguments to :function:`Basis.cast`, e.g. (‘pp’,4).
name (str, optional) – The name of this basis. If None, the names of the component bases joined with “*” is used.
longname (str, optional) – A longer description of this basis. If None, then a long name is automatically generated.
 _to_nice_serialization(self)¶
 classmethod _from_nice_serialization(cls, state)¶
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 _lazy_build_elements(self)¶
 _lazy_build_labels(self)¶
 _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 create_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name)¶
Create an equivalent basis with components of type builtin_basis_name.
Create a Basis that is equivalent in structure & dimension to this basis but whose simple components (perhaps just this basis itself) is of the builtin basis type given by builtin_basis_name.
 Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str) – The name of a builtin basis, e.g. “pp”, “gm”, or “std”. Used to construct the simple components of the returned basis.
 Returns
TensorProdBasis
 create_simple_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name=None)¶
Create a basis of type builtin_basis_name whose elements are compatible with this basis.
Create a simple basis and one without components (e.g. a
TensorProdBasis
, is a simple basis w/components) of the builtin type specified whose dimension is compatible with the elements of this basis. This function might also be named “element_equivalent”, as it returns the builtin_basis_nameanalogue of the standard basis that this basis’s elements are expressed in. Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str, optional) – The name of the builtin basis to use. If None, then a copy of this basis is returned (if it’s simple) or this basis’s name is used to try to construct a simple and componentfree version of the same builtinbasis type.
 Returns
Basis
 class pygsti.baseobjs.basis.EmbeddedBasis(basis_to_embed, state_space, target_labels, name=None, longname=None)¶
Bases:
LazyBasis
A basis that embeds a basis for a smaller state space within a larger state space.
The elements of an EmbeddedBasis are therefore just embedded versions of the elements of the basis that is embedded.
 Parameters
basis_to_embed (Basis) – The basis being embedded.
state_space_labels (StateSpaceLabels) – An object describing the struture of the entire state space.
target_labels (list or tuple) – The labels contained in stateSpaceLabels which demarcate the portions of the state space acted on by basis_to_embed.
name (str, optional) – The name of this basis. If None, the names of basis_to_embed is joined with ‘:’ characters to the elements of target_labels.
longname (str, optional) – A longer description of this basis. If None, then a long name is automatically generated.
 classmethod embed_label(cls, lbl, target_labels)¶
Gets the EmbeddedBasis label for lbl.
Convenience method that gives the EmbeddedBasis label for lbl without needing to construct the EmbeddedBasis. E.g. “XX:1,2”.
 Parameters
lbl (str) – Unembedded basis element label, e.g. “XX”.
target_labels (tuple) – The target state space labels upon which this basis element will be embedded, e.g. (1,2)
 Returns
str – The embeddedbasiselement label as an EmbeddedBasis would assign it. E.g. “XX:1,2”.
 classmethod unembed_label(cls, lbl, target_labels)¶
Convenience method that performs the reverse of :method:`embed_label`
 Parameters
lbl (str) – Embedded basis element label, e.g. “XX:1,2”.
target_labels (tuple) – The target state space labels upon which this basis element will be embedded, e.g. (1,2)
 Returns
str – The unembedded label, e.g. “XX”.
 _to_nice_serialization(self)¶
 classmethod _from_nice_serialization(cls, state)¶
 property dim(self)¶
The dimension of the vector space this basis fully or partially spans. Equivalently, the length of the vector_elements of the basis.
 property size(self)¶
The number of elements (or vectorelements) in the basis.
 property elshape(self)¶
The shape of each element. Typically either a length1 or length2 tuple, corresponding to vector or matrix elements, respectively. Note that vector elements always have shape (dim,) (or (dim,1) in the sparse case).
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 _lazy_build_elements(self)¶
Take a dense or sparse basis matrix and embed it.
 _lazy_build_labels(self)¶
 _copy_with_toggled_sparsity(self)¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 create_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name)¶
Create an equivalent basis with components of type builtin_basis_name.
Create a Basis that is equivalent in structure & dimension to this basis but whose simple components (perhaps just this basis itself) is of the builtin basis type given by builtin_basis_name.
 Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str) – The name of a builtin basis, e.g. “pp”, “gm”, or “std”. Used to construct the simple components of the returned basis.
 Returns
EmbeddedBasis
 create_simple_equivalent(self, builtin_basis_name=None)¶
Create a basis of type builtin_basis_name whose elements are compatible with this basis.
Create a simple basis and one without components (e.g. a
TensorProdBasis
, is a simple basis w/components) of the builtin type specified whose dimension is compatible with the elements of this basis. This function might also be named “element_equivalent”, as it returns the builtin_basis_nameanalogue of the standard basis that this basis’s elements are expressed in. Parameters
builtin_basis_name (str, optional) – The name of the builtin basis to use. If None, then a copy of this basis is returned (if it’s simple) or this basis’s name is used to try to construct a simple and componentfree version of the same builtinbasis type.
 Returns
Basis